新的人口普查数据显示,联邦投资使数百万人脱贫, But Texas Needs Bold Action

寻找德州各县各市的趋势? 今年的美国社区调查估计被推迟. 了解更多 在这里

公布的数据 由你.S. 人口普查 Bureau this morning shows the nation as a whole had a slight decrease in median real income (-2.9%),主要原因是2020年新增13%.全职工人减少了700万, year-round work — the largest year-to-year decrease since data collection began in 1967 — and 3 million fewer people having earnings at all in 2020 (stay tuned next week for our analysis of what this means for healthcare coverage for Texans, 他们中的大多数人依靠雇主资助的健康保险). 这是自2011年以来国民收入首次出现显著下降. 国家官方贫困率也上升了1个百分点,至11.4%从10.5%,五年来首次增加,而家庭贫困率增加到8%.7%, 7.8%.

但结果可能会更糟. Families underwent extraordinary hardships with the onset of the pandemic (including the March-2020年4月 recession), 但政策干预使许多银行得以存活. Proactive COVID-19 relief investments from the CARES Act and American Rescue Plan Act (ARPA) kept millions 摆脱了贫困, and highlight the importance of sustaining efforts with a thoughtful Build Back Better Act (read 更多的 national commentary by the Center on 十大正规网投信誉平台 and Policy Priorities 在这里). 

Looking at multi-year averages for Texas, the state’s official poverty rate for 2018-2020 of 12.9% (3.7百万人口)明显低于全国平均水平11.2% (36.500万人). Only five states had significantly worse official poverty averages than Texas in recent years (Mississippi, 路易斯安那州, 新墨西哥, 阿肯色州, 及哥伦比亚特区). 两年的贫困趋势显示,德克萨斯州正在改善,2019-2020年的平均贫困人口为12人.5%明显好于2017-2018年的平均水平13.4%——然而, it should be cautioned that multi-year poverty averages can obscure how difficult 2020 was for many families, 鉴于过去几年贫困率一直在改善. (Due to the small sample size of the Current Population Survey and data collection challenges in 2020, 不建议在州一级分析一年的趋势). 

实际上,是官员 贫困的阈值 of $13,个人465美元,26美元,对于一个四口之家来说,246个已经算是保守的低了, 导致许多人转而求助于像 爱丽丝, 这有助我们更好地了解资产有限公司的实际情况, 收入约束, 联邦贫困线以上的就业家庭.

美国.S. 人口普查局也提供了另一种贫困衡量方法. 而官方贫困衡量标准只包括现金收入, 贫困补充措施显示了社会保障等项目的效果, 退税, 提前, and 更多的 which help people stay 摆脱了贫困 — as well as detracting costs like medical expenses. 2018-2020年,德克萨斯州的平均补充贫困率为12.5% (3.6 million people), which is significantly better than the official poverty average of 12.9% (3.700万人). The supplemental poverty measure shows the significance of non-cash benefits and social safety net measures in keeping families 摆脱了贫困. 

These programs helped keep millions of people 摆脱了贫困 nationally in 2020 – and aside from social security (helping 26.500万), the interventions with the largest estimated impact were economic impact/stimulus payments (helping 11.其次是失业保险.500万)和可退还的税收抵免(5.300万). On the flip side, medical expenses put an additional 5 million people below poverty.

到2020年,美国将成为世界上最大的石油生产国.S. South region (which includes Texas) had the lowest pre-tax median income of all, and decreased 2.3%,从62,657美元增至61,243美元,而贫困率则上升至13.3% (16.600万人),12%. 然而,税后收入实际上有所提高.7% to $58,085, 是所有地区中增长最快的, 显示额外刺激支出和税收抵免的公平影响. 南方从联邦政府的支持中获益匪浅. 基尼指数, a measure of income inequality (w在这里 0 is perfect equality and 1 is perfect inequality), 表明,在全国范围内, 税后收入分配实际上略有改善(-3.1% to 0.这要归功于公平税收抵免的实施. 

没有《网投十大信誉平台官网》提供的实质性支持, ARPA, 以及其他州和地方投资, 德克萨斯州和整个国家的贫困人口可能会进一步增加, 不仅影响今天,也影响我们的未来. 例如,儿童贫困显示出连锁反应 长期影响

不管总体趋势如何, it is also important to highlight not every group experiences financial gains and losses equally. 在全国范围内, women continued to earn just 83% of what men earned for full-time year-round work in 2020, 从2019年起没有显著变化. But most job losses hit at the lower end of the income distribution (54% affecting full-time, 全年工资低于34美元的工人,000), 这主要影响女性, 黑色的, 棕色(的), 土著, and immigrant workers who are disproportionately in low-income jobs due to systemic racism and sexism. 

美国的许多数据类型.S. 人口普查 Bureau collects are an invaluable source for helping us measure progress toward achieving a Texas w在这里 everyone is healthy, 受过良好网投十大信誉平台官网的, 和经济安全. 不管测量结果如何, 这些数据清楚地揭示了粗体的必要性, transformative public policy to improve lives and advance racial and economic equity at the federal and state level. 

政策的影响是巨大的. 德州必须利用美国救援计划资助等机会 战略投资 在长期公平的经济复苏中. 迄今为止,COVID-19救援投资已使数百万人摆脱贫困, 特别是那些没有储蓄缓冲的低收入家庭, which helped maintain overall consumption levels and prevent further spiraling of the economy. 失业补助缓解了儿童贫困率, 快速的扩张, 劳动收入和儿童税收抵免(CTC)转移, 刺激检查, 以及每月的CTC付款. 贫困中心 & 社会政策 估计 that poverty 利率 would be significantly 更高的 for everyone without these investments, 据估计,仅儿童税收抵免的扩张就被保留了下来 300万个孩子 摆脱了贫困.

新冠肺炎导致失业率上升, 食品不安全, 以及所有德州人的住房安全问题, 对德州有色人种和有孩子的家庭有着截然不同的影响. 黑人和棕色人种社区遭受的困难最为严重, as they disproportionately work in industries with job instability due to historical and current labor market discrimination, and have been historically excluded from equal access to wealth-building opportunities like affordable 更高的 网投十大信誉平台官网 and home ownership that can help insulate families from shock. The impact of COVID-19 highlighted embedded inequities in our system that make it difficult for all Texans to thrive, unless we make purposeful and sustained investments in equitable economic recovery. 

实现公平的经济收益将是巨大的 估计 由联邦 旧金山储备银行,美国.S. 经济舱是2美元.6 trillion 更多的 in GDP in 2019 if labor market gaps by race and gender were eliminated. When children, families, and workers of different backgrounds do better, we all do better. “重建更美好”的投资,永久性扩大儿童税收抵免,以及 失业保险 改革是通向公平的几种有希望的政策途径.

While employment and household budget indicators for Texas have improved in recent months, 这部分要归功于美国救援计划, 家庭继续面临困难. 根据最近的 家庭倾向调查 来自美国的数据.S. 人口普查局(2021年8月18日至30日): 

  • 近五分之一的德州家庭在过去的一个月里失去了就业收入
    包括四分之一的黑人和西班牙裔家庭. 持续努力扩大州和联邦范围 失业保险 是必不可少的. 
  • / 4.500万德州人——即五分之一的工作年龄成年人——是必不可少的工人, 保持我们的医疗, 网投十大信誉平台官网, 食物, 以及其他重要的服务. 几乎一半的人有孩子,但缺乏足够的儿童照顾和 工人的保护.
  • 上个月,超过500万德州人获得了儿童税收抵免, 使他们能够满足基本需要. 永久性地扩大儿童税收抵免将会大幅增加 减少儿童贫困.
  • 上周,德克萨斯州有孩子的家庭中有十分之一的人没有足够的食物. 在多种族家庭中,三分之一的人没有. 扩大 营养计划 helped families, but 更多的 investment is needed to counter the effects of systemic racism.
  • 据报道,18%有孩子的德州家庭没有医疗保险. 除非德州立法,否则家庭可能会推迟所需的医疗护理或积累医疗债务 医疗补助扩大.
  • Over half of Texas renters with children reported lacking confidence in their ability to pay next month’s rent. The American Rescue Plan is an opportunity for cities and states to budget for expanded 住房支持.

食品安全数据最近由 美国农业部 for a 3-year average of 2018-2020 show that the prevalence of 食品不安全 in Texas is 更高的 than the national average. Of 10.600万家庭,估计有13个.3%的人经历过粮食不安全,而10人.全国7%. 因为这些数据包括2018年和2019年, it likely understates the difficulty in accessing 食物 that families faced in the first year of the pandemic.

失业率是经济困难的另一个主要指标. 初步环比 利率 将于7月6日在德州上演.寻找工作的德州人中有2%是失业的,这个比例相当高 更高的 比大流行前的数字(通常为3-4%).

美国救援计划法案, 德州有一个前所未有的机会来公平地投资于长期复苏. The tenuous financial survival achieved by many families last year thanks to relief investments could be wiped away without continued proactive and equitable policy response, 比如在联邦一级通过《网投十大信誉平台官网》, 并在州和地方层面战略性地投资ARPA基金. 阅读更多关于德克萨斯州如何使用联邦COVID-19救济资金的信息 在这里 并为当地寻找指导 在这里. 政策问题. 

特别感谢研究分析师Kaitlan Wong和Research & 数据实习生金伯利·克拉瑞达对数据分析的贡献. 欲了解更多信息或安排与我们的专家之一的采访, 请网投十大信誉平台官网通讯主任洛拉·文森 vinson@www.jraellis.com.

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